They are crying because of the news.
The police stopped them.
They were stopped by the police.
The project was stopped by the CEO.
Crying and shaking, the woman opened the door.
Stopped by the police, the driver took out his license.
The crying child kept everyone awake for many hours.
The stopped project left several workers unemployed.
Example: The boy swallowed a fish.
Example: The fish vanished.
In general, the -ed form often describes how someone feels:
The frightened campers tried to call for help.
All his friends had left for the summer, so Ryan felt very bored.
The -ing form points to others or causes of the feeling:
Godzilla was quite frightening to many children at the theater.
The boring class made several students fall asleep.
Compare the following examples:
1. Erik has a very tiring job. (The job causes “tiredness.”)
He is always tired when he gets home from work. (He feels tired.)
2. It was surprising that Kelly passed the exam. (The news caused surprise.)
I was truly surprised when I heard the news. (I felt surprised.)
3. The story of their marriage was really fascinating. (The story causes
I was fascinated by the story of their marriage. (I felt fascinated.)
4. What can be more exciting than a roller coaster ride? (The ride causes
Gina was excited about going to the amusement park. (Gina felt excited.)
5. The headlines in the newspaper were embarrassing. (They caused
Mary was (very) embarrassed when she saw the pictures. (She felt
The following is a list of other adjectives ending in -ing or -ed that frequently cause confusion:
amusing amused frightening frightened
amazing amazed horrifying horrified
annoying annoyed interesting interested
astonishing astonished overwhelming overwhelmed
confusing confused pleasing pleased
depressing depressed satisfying satisfied
disappointing disappointed shocking shocked
disgusting disgusted surprising surprised
exciting excited terrifying terrified
exhausting exhausted worrying worried