This information is based on Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, 2010, and MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition, 2009.
An annotated bibliography adds additional information to a list of References or Works Cited. An annotated bibliography has two components:
Depending on the instructor’s requirements and assignment guidelines, the information in an annotated bibliography may take one of several different formats:
The summary, evaluation, and/or reflection will appear after the bibliographic information. The length of each annotation will depend on how much detail is required and may vary from several sentences to several pages, depending on the assignment.
Gerbner, G., & Gross, L. (1976). Living with television: The violence profile. Journal of Communication, 26,
Gerbner and Gross, in their pioneering article, lay the groundwork for cultivation theory. They begin by
discussing the power of television to dramatize society and reinforce society’s status quo, arguing that television
creates basic assumptions about the “facts” of life and becomes a force of enculturation. Moreover, television helps
members of society learn how large institutions such as medicine, law enforcement and justice, big business, and
entertainment work. By using a textual analysis of television and identifying broad themes, the researchers created
a survey to see how these broad themes affect perception. They found that heavy television viewers were more
likely than light television viewers to believe the television representation of reality in the areas of law enforcement,
human trustworthiness, and likelihood of being involved in violence. Their results also supported the effects of
television on broad demographic groups--it affected minorities, the poor, the undereducated, and even college
students in similar ways.
This foundational research study on cultivation theory is well-written and well-supported. The use of logic and
clear explanation makes the new theory easy to understand. By addressing common reader concerns about the
establishment of cultivation, including questions about its effects on different demographics of television viewers, the
authors are able to establish strong credibility.
Blackmon, W.D. (1994). Dungeons and dragons: The use of a fantasy game in psychotherapeutic treatment of a
young adult. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 48(4). Retrieved from http://www.ajp.org/
This article describes a case study of an emotionally challenged young man who is able to overcome his
handicap by playing the game Dungeons and Dragons (D&D). The article follows the patient’s history, detailing his
family and life history and describing his suicide attempt. The article also describes the treatment plan (using D&D)
that helped the man cope with life. The article emphasized that D&D allowed the patient to have social contact and to
use characters in order to express his fantasies and innermost feelings. The suspension of real-world rules in
juxtaposition with a great number of game-governing rules shows the reader how players can cope with problems
within a structured environment. The article ends by explaining how the patient was able to enact his feelings
through the characters in the game and recuperate to live a normal adult life.
This article will be somewhat useful for the cultural observation analysis. It provides a very different perspective
of D&D—a psychological one. In addition, the article shows how individuals may view D&D as a friendship-building,
social activity. This viewpoint supports somewhat the themes of collaboration and teamwork which I have identified
and will be helpful mostly because it supports the cultural themes which I have identified as important in the
Dungeons and Dragons game playing culture.
Particularly helpful and interesting is the description of how D&D allows its players to enact their feelings and
live out their fantasies in a safe environment. This supports my conclusions from observations about creativity
and role playing. It confirms several similar studies that have demonstrated the psychological impact of
Wendt, Tracy. "Body as Mentality in Edith Wharton's Ethan Frome." Atenea. 25.2 (2005): 155-170. Print.
In this short essay, Wendt analyzes the use of internal monologue and verbal dialogue in Wharton’s novella.
Wendt argues that the psychologies of the characters in Ethan Frome are best seen through the language of their
bodies, rather than in their internal monologue and external dialogue. Wendt focuses on the simple language that the
characters use, and contends that the language itself masks a complex psychology, arguing that in order to survive,
Frome’s “bodily needs dominate the intellectual” (159). Wendt highlights a specific scene involving Ethan Frome and
Mattie to emphasize the relationship between thought, understanding, and physical actions, particularly the
description of Ethan’s eyebrows as “an almost physical semblance of the brain.” Wendt goes on to compare the
themes in Ethan Frome to the themes present in Summer, another one of Wharton’s works.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. “The Four Freedoms” (delivered 6 January, 1941). American Rhetoric: Top 100 Speeches. n.d.
Web. 15 Mar. 2010.
This speech by President Roosevelt focuses on humanitarian issues relating to WWII, persuading Americans to
answer the call of freedom. Roosevelt called on Americans to make sacrifices on behalf of their country to resist the
evil influence of the Nazis and defeat them utterly. I’ll use this speech to show that military involvement was not the
only type of intervention Roosevelt was calling for. The speech also illustrates Roosevelt’s capacity as a leader to
oppose the forces that were attempting to isolate the U.S. Roosevelt further expresses the need to go beyond the
borders of the U.S. and not be “soft hearted.” This further demonstrates his ability to lead in a democratic yet